Discovery of Susan Lynne Schwenger proves Pyramid of Calakmul,Campeche,Mexico is an ancient calendar

Discussion in 'Ancient, Indigenous, & Tribal Calendars' started by Susan Lynne Schwenger, Oct 16, 2014.

  1. Susan Lynne Schwenger

    Susan Lynne Schwenger The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    Messages:
    6,134
    The Pyramid of Calakmul, Campeche, Mexico is an ancient calendar
    and, was decoded by:
    Susan Lynne Schwenger
    Aug 20th 2012
    • Pyramid 390 ft square ~ 390 x 24,000 = 9,360,000 = 360 x 26000
    http://www.thuban.spruz.com/forums/?page=post&id=336142E7-BF61-486B-8338-19FD6A632328&pageindex=1

    The Calendar of Calakmul, Campeche, Mexico

    - Pyramid 390 ft square

    ~ 390 x 24,000 = 9,360,000

    = 360 x 26000 = 9,360,000

    = 260 x 36000 =9,360,000

    =5 major cycles of 13 = 65 cycle x 144,000 =9,360,000

    SUSAN LYNNE SCHWENGER AKA SUSANakaTHE13THBRIDGE - Posted Aug 20th 2012

    This is also another calendar:
    That fits into the work of:
    Susan Lynne Schwenger & Tony Bermanseder
    where:
    9,360,000 divided by 360 = 26,000
    9,360,360 divided by 360 = 26,001
    also 9,360,000 divided by 390 = 24,000 - plato's great year
    and, 9,360,360 divided by 390 = 24,000.923

    ~ Susan Lynne Schwenger

    Structure II at the ancient Mayan city of Calakmul (Campeche, Mexico)
    391228_399466646775453_1187732695_n-jpg.
    is a massive north-facing pyramid temple,
    one of the largest in the Maya world.

    Its base measures 120 meters (390 ft) square and it stands over 45 metres (148 ft) high.
    The city is situated on a promontory formed by a natural 35-metre (115 ft) high limestone dome
    rising above the surrounding lowlands.

    This dome was artificially leveled by the Maya.

    The stone used in construction at the site is a soft limestone.
    This has resulted in severe erosion of the site's sculpture.

    Post last edited Dec 12th, 2012

    ORIGINAL POST: Posted Aug 20th 2012
    http://www.thuban.spruz.com/forums/?page=post&id=336142E7-BF61-486B-8338-19FD6A632328&pageindex=1

    and, it is NOW on this forum at this link:
    (http://www.cosmosdawn.net/forum/ind...l-campeche-mexico-is-an-ancient-calendar.618/)
     
    Oxlajuj Qanil likes this.
  2. Susan Lynne Schwenger

    Susan Lynne Schwenger The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    Messages:
    6,134
    Charmed by the Snake Kingdom

    – Calakmul, Campeche State, Mexico


    Calakmul, one of the largest, most powerful and most important Mayan cities ever discovered,
    had sophisticated infrastructure (including the largest Mayan reservoir ever found)
    and a massive amount of land and buildings.

    The so-called Snake Kingdom even had a logo–an emblematic snake head has been found all over the place.

    Calakmul reached the height of power during the Classic Period (250 to 900 AD)
    and the city/kingdom once had 50,000 inhabitants and ruled the land up to 150 kilometers away.

    Calakmul’s cross-town rival, however, was Tikal to the south in what is now northern Guatemala.

    Among other differences, Tikal was all about male rulers while Calakmul emphasized joint male/female rule.

    There are even some carved stone stelae at Calakmul depicting queens.

    We’re just saying.

    Tikal finally dominated, but not before Calakmul put its stamp on the Mayan world.

    [​IMG]
    Structure VIII is one of the smaller buildings of Calakmul which also boasts some of the most massive temples
    in the Mayan world.

    The journey through the jungle to reach Calakmul, a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2002,
    is definitely part of the adventure.

    Located within the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, which covers 14% of the state of Campeche,
    the roughly 30 mile drive off the highway takes you through a slice of one of the largest protected areas
    in Mexico until you finally reach the archaeological site itself.

    During our early morning drive to the site, over a mostly well-paved road, we saw two deer, a toucan and a grey fox. The preserve is also home to pumas and more than 250 species of bird. That jungly feeling continues even after you’ve entered this archaeological site.

    The core areas of Calakmul, include roughly 1,000 structures covering nearly a square mile, however, that’s a mere fraction of the nearly 40 square miles of civilization and 6,500 structures believed to still be hidden in the ever-encroaching jungle.

    [​IMG]
    Structure IV is really a group of three temples built on the foundation of an older Preclassic period temple.

    This group of buildings may have been used to determine the solstice.

    The number of stelae in front of it is remarkable.

    On of the reasons UNESCO made Calakmul a World Heritage Site is the city’s collection of stelae.
    Almost every impotant structure in the excavated area has at least one remaining carved stone slab
    –often depicting intricate historical and political facts about the city and the kingdom.

    [​IMG]
    Structure VII is a nearly 80 foot high temple on the north side of the Central Plaza at Calakmul
    with five stelae in front of it.
    [​IMG]
    The nearly 150 foot high Structure II (one of the largest in the Mayan world)
    as seen from the top of Structure VII.

    Calakmul is a vast site (allow at least two hours) but there’s a prescribed walking route
    that pretty much ensures you won’t miss anything.

    In addition to the remarkable stelae, Calakmul offers a number of awesome temples–some of the biggest
    and highest in the region–that can (and should) be climbed.

    Only by climbing the temples can you really appreciate the layout of the city below you,
    the impenetrability of the jungle and the shape, size and placement of the other temples.
    Also, the tops of the temples provide relief from the heat and the mosquitoes because a breeze
    reaches their pinnacles which poke through the dense jungle.

    [​IMG]
    Classic Calakmul: stairs and stelae.
    [​IMG]
    At just shy of 150 feet high and nearly 400 feet across its base,
    Structure II is one of the largest buildings in the Mayan world.
    It's also a great climb which is rewarded with a cooling breeze and views across the city.
    On a clear day you might even be able to see the remains of El Mirador archeology site in Northern Guatemala.
    [​IMG]
    Structure I (the really big temple) as seen from the top of Structure II (the really REALLY big temple).
    [​IMG]
    Structure I seems to be higher than Structure II because it was built on a slight hill.
    The stelae in front of it date back to 731 AD.
    [​IMG]
    Karen surveying the Mayan world at Calakmul from the top of Structure I.

    Don’t feel like doing the Mayan stairmaster? Check out our three part video, below,
    and get your own overview of the amazing Calakmul archaeological site.
    Part one shows the enormous Structure II as seen from Structure VII.
    Part two is a panorama shot over the site shot from the top of Structure II.
    Part three is another panorama, this time taken from the top of Structure I,
    including a look across to the even-taller Structure II. Enjoy.



    [​IMG]
    Part of what experts believe was a residential complex at Calakmul--like a Mayan suburb.

    TIP
    Because the Calakmul archaeological site is within the vast Calakmul Biosphere Reserve there is no nearby town,
    unless you count Xpujil which is quite a ways away and something of a hole.

    Therefore, the most comfortable and convenient place to stay before and after your visit to Calakmul
    is Hotel Puerta Calakmul. Located just off the highway and right at the entrance to the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, Puerto Calakmul has 15 stand-alone bungalows with hand-made log and branch furniture, polished concrete floors, modern bathrooms and (most importantly) very good screens. The hotel put us up in bungalow #11
    and one morning we had flamboyant ocellated turkeys in the backyard and a small family of howler monkeys
    in the front yard.

    GLAD WE HAD
    We’re pretty sure the concept of the air being “thick” with mosquitoes was inspired by the swarms in
    and around the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve.

    We actually broke out our electronic mosquito swatting tennis racquet and went to town in an attempt to kill enough of the little biters to be able to relax on the little porch in front of our bungalow.

    It didn’t work, but the hundreds of zaps were satisfying nonetheless.

    http://trans-americas.com/blog/2011/01/calakmul/
     
  3. Susan Lynne Schwenger

    Susan Lynne Schwenger The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    Messages:
    6,134
    Charmed by the Snake Kingdom

    – Calakmul, Campeche State, Mexico


    Calakmul, one of the largest, most powerful and most important Mayan cities ever discovered,
    had sophisticated infrastructure (including the largest Mayan reservoir ever found)
    and a massive amount of land and buildings.

    The so-called Snake Kingdom even had a logo–an emblematic snake head has been found all over the place.

    Calakmul reached the height of power during the Classic Period (250 to 900 AD)
    and the city/kingdom once had 50,000 inhabitants and ruled the land up to 150 kilometers away.

    Calakmul’s cross-town rival, however, was Tikal to the south in what is now northern Guatemala.

    Among other differences, Tikal was all about male rulers while Calakmul emphasized joint male/female rule.

    There are even some carved stone stelae at Calakmul depicting queens.

    We’re just saying.

    Tikal finally dominated, but not before Calakmul put its stamp on the Mayan world.

    [​IMG]
    Structure VIII is one of the smaller buildings of Calakmul which also boasts some of the most massive temples
    in the Mayan world.

    The journey through the jungle to reach Calakmul, a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2002,
    is definitely part of the adventure.

    Located within the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, which covers 14% of the state of Campeche,
    the roughly 30 mile drive off the highway takes you through a slice of one of the largest protected areas
    in Mexico until you finally reach the archaeological site itself.

    During our early morning drive to the site, over a mostly well-paved road, we saw two deer, a toucan and a grey fox. The preserve is also home to pumas and more than 250 species of bird. That jungly feeling continues even after you’ve entered this archaeological site.

    The core areas of Calakmul, include roughly 1,000 structures covering nearly a square mile, however, that’s a mere fraction of the nearly 40 square miles of civilization and 6,500 structures believed to still be hidden in the ever-encroaching jungle.

    [​IMG]
    Structure IV is really a group of three temples built on the foundation of an older Preclassic period temple.

    This group of buildings may have been used to determine the solstice.

    The number of stelae in front of it is remarkable.

    On of the reasons UNESCO made Calakmul a World Heritage Site is the city’s collection of stelae.
    Almost every impotant structure in the excavated area has at least one remaining carved stone slab
    –often depicting intricate historical and political facts about the city and the kingdom.

    [​IMG]
    Structure VII is a nearly 80 foot high temple on the north side of the Central Plaza at Calakmul
    with five stelae in front of it.
    [​IMG]
    The nearly 150 foot high Structure II (one of the largest in the Mayan world)
    as seen from the top of Structure VII.

    Calakmul is a vast site (allow at least two hours) but there’s a prescribed walking route
    that pretty much ensures you won’t miss anything.

    In addition to the remarkable stelae, Calakmul offers a number of awesome temples–some of the biggest
    and highest in the region–that can (and should) be climbed.

    Only by climbing the temples can you really appreciate the layout of the city below you,
    the impenetrability of the jungle and the shape, size and placement of the other temples.
    Also, the tops of the temples provide relief from the heat and the mosquitoes because a breeze
    reaches their pinnacles which poke through the dense jungle.

    [​IMG]
    Classic Calakmul: stairs and stelae.
    [​IMG]
    At just shy of 150 feet high and nearly 400 feet across its base,
    Structure II is one of the largest buildings in the Mayan world.
    It's also a great climb which is rewarded with a cooling breeze and views across the city.
    On a clear day you might even be able to see the remains of El Mirador archeology site in Northern Guatemala.
    [​IMG]
    Structure I (the really big temple) as seen from the top of Structure II (the really REALLY big temple).
    [​IMG]
    Structure I seems to be higher than Structure II because it was built on a slight hill.
    The stelae in front of it date back to 731 AD.
    [​IMG]
    Karen surveying the Mayan world at Calakmul from the top of Structure I.

    Don’t feel like doing the Mayan stairmaster? Check out our three part video, below,
    and get your own overview of the amazing Calakmul archaeological site.
    Part one shows the enormous Structure II as seen from Structure VII.
    Part two is a panorama shot over the site shot from the top of Structure II.
    Part three is another panorama, this time taken from the top of Structure I,
    including a look across to the even-taller Structure II. Enjoy.



    [​IMG]
    Part of what experts believe was a residential complex at Calakmul--like a Mayan suburb.

    TIP
    Because the Calakmul archaeological site is within the vast Calakmul Biosphere Reserve there is no nearby town,
    unless you count Xpujil which is quite a ways away and something of a hole.

    Therefore, the most comfortable and convenient place to stay before and after your visit to Calakmul
    is Hotel Puerta Calakmul. Located just off the highway and right at the entrance to the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, Puerto Calakmul has 15 stand-alone bungalows with hand-made log and branch furniture, polished concrete floors, modern bathrooms and (most importantly) very good screens. The hotel put us up in bungalow #11
    and one morning we had flamboyant ocellated turkeys in the backyard and a small family of howler monkeys
    in the front yard.

    GLAD WE HAD
    We’re pretty sure the concept of the air being “thick” with mosquitoes was inspired by the swarms in
    and around the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve.

    We actually broke out our electronic mosquito swatting tennis racquet and went to town in an attempt to kill enough of the little biters to be able to relax on the little porch in front of our bungalow.

    It didn’t work, but the hundreds of zaps were satisfying nonetheless.

    http://trans-americas.com/blog/2011/01/calakmul/
     
  4. Susan Lynne Schwenger

    Susan Lynne Schwenger The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    Messages:
    6,134
    2Fwp-content%2Fuploads%2F2010%2F12%2FStructureVII-Calakmul.
    Structure VII is a nearly 80 foot high temple on the north side of the Central Plaza at Calakmul
    with five stelae in front of it.



    Susan Lynne Schwenger says:
    "The Five (5) Stelae are markers for The Five (5) Major cycles
    of Thirteen (13) Minor Cycles of 144,000 days = 9,360,000 Ancient Days,
    which breaks down to 390
    (the square feet of the pyramid, and, also Plato's Number)
    x 24,000 Ancient Years = 9,360,000 Ancient Days.


    The Calendar of Calakmul, Campeche, Mexico is an ancient calendar...
    it also can be balanced with 9,360,000 divided by 360 days
    (the length of an ancient year) which equals 26,000 ancient years,
    and, it can also be balanced with 9,360,00 divided by 260 day cycle
    (which, is the length of maya/aztec cycle)
    which equals 36,000 cycles x 260 ancient days."


    - Pyramid 390 ft square

    390 ancient days x 24,000 ancient years = 9,360,000 ancient days

    = 360 ancient days x 26000 ancient years = 9,360,000 ancient days

    = 260 ancient days x 36000 ancient years =9,360,000 ancient days

    =5 major cycles of 13 minor cycles = 65 cycles x 144,000 ancient days =9,360,000 ancient days
     
  5. Susan Lynne Schwenger

    Susan Lynne Schwenger The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    Messages:
    6,134
    susand10.
    Susan Lynne Schwenger aka The eXchanger aka White Lotus Star
    is an internationally known Cosmologist, Healer & Seer
    Doctor of Metaphysics, Metaphysician, ABD
    Msc.D, ABD, DMeta, ABD, MsD, ABD

    aka Wassenakoshka Anang ~ Wassenakoshka Giizis (Kwe)
    (which translates into English as: Bright Shining Star ~ Bright Shining Sun (Woman)\

    Elder - Grandmother - Sage - Seer - Spiritual Healer
    - Spiritual Medicine Woman through Ceremony - Counselling - Doctoring

    Day/Night - Record - Time - Wisdom Keeper

    ~ who discovered The Grand Cycle of Macha & Pacha
    End Date of The 16th December 2013 (16 DEC 2013) at sunset

    ~who discovered The Grand Cycle of Pacha iNTi
    Start Date of The 17th December 2013 (17 DEC 2013) at sunrise
    as, The Second (2nd) Full Moon in December,
    which starts The Winter Cycle, on The Six (6) Season Calendar
    (6 Seasons x 60 ancient days = 360 ancient days)
    aka The Ancient Year Calendar of (6 seasons x 60 ancient days =360 ancient days=1 ancient year (360)
    aka The Thirteen (13) Moon Calendar (12 cycles - runs from The Full Moon to eve of day b4 The full moon)
    aka The Six (6) Event Calendar of The Celts, Druids, Pict - Pictish
    back in 1984, when she was 25 years old.

    Tony Bermanseder & Susan Lynne Schwenger have successfully aligned
    & calibrated all the ancient calendars:

    The Maya - Mayan Cholq'ij aka Tzolk'in aka Tzolkin Calendar of 260 days
    to The Current Civil Calendar aka The Gregorian Calendar
    through 9,360,360 days, which equals:
    (5 great cycles x 13 cycles x 144,000 days=9,360,000
    + (6 cycles x 60 days=360)=9,360,000 + 360 = 9,360,360/360=26,001 Ancient Years
    utilizing cosmology, mathematics, and science,
    with the backup of The New Moon and The Full Moon Cycles.

    There was nothing wrong with any of the ancient time keeping systems,
    the only thing, that was wrong, was the 21st of December 2012, was NOT the day before a full moon,
    and, the 22nd December 2012, was NOT the day of a full moon.

    There are exactly 6 seasons x 60 days =360 days
    between 22nd December 2012, and, 16th December 2013.

    The 16th December 2013, is the day before the last full moon in December,
    and, the 17th December 2013, is the day of the last full moon in December.

    Full details can be found on the old forum at:
    http://www.thuban.spruz.com/forums/?page=post&fid=&lastp=1&id=0265D780-C9C1-46C1-80A1-A15795198653

    The new forum post can be found here:
    (INSERT)

    Tony Bermanseder & Susan Lynne Schwenger have also aligned the following calendar:
    The Maya aka The Mayan Tzolk'in aka Tzolkin Calendar of 260 Days

    Susan Lynne Schwenger, then went onto aligning:

    The Aztec Tonalpohualli Calendar of 260 Days
    which has its roots in The Aztec, Meso-American, Olmec, and Q'ero

    The First Nations of Canada aka The Turtle Island Tribal Calendars of 260 Days

    mainly, The Cree, Ojibwa-Ojibway-Ojibwe, Algonquin, Mi'Kmaq aka MicMac,
    Chippewa aka Chipewyna, Chippewa Ojibway, Woodland Cree, Nipissing,
    Odawa of Ottawa, Potawatomi, Saulteaux, Missississagua, Tingit, Tahitan, Tagish,
    Kaska, Han, Innu of Labrador, Maliseet, Passamaquoddy,
    Haudenosaunee aka Iroquois,
    Cayuga, Mohawk, Onedia, Onondaga, Seneca, Tuscaronia,
    Wyandot aka Huron,
    Tli Cho, Slavey, Haida, Sahtu, Yellowknifes, Dunneza, Gwich'in, Dene, Nakoda,
    Yakama,
    Blackfoot~Kainai aka Blood, North Peigan & Siksika,
    Coast Salsih, etc.etc.etc.,
    (there are just too many different tribes to mention all of them.)


    The Metis of Canada aka The Turtle Island Calendar of 260 Days

    The Native American of USA aka The Turtle Island Calendar of 260 Days
    (too many tribes to mention, since, all of them use this ancient calendar)
    mainly,
    The Catawba,
    Cherokee,
    Chippewa-Ojibway,
    Ojibwa-Ojibway-Ojibwe,
    Dakota,
    Lakota,
    Nakota Tribes etc.etc.etc.,
    (there are just too many tribes to mention all of them.)


    The Cherokee Calendar of 260 Days

    The Maori of New Zealand Calendar of 260 Days

    The Aborigine aka The Aboriginal of Australia Calendar of 260 Days

    All 260 Day calendars have cycles of 13 cycles x 20 days =
    260 Days

    20 days = Four (4) weeks of Five (5) days = 4x5 = 20 Days

    260 Days is The Gestation Period of a baby in its mothers womb

    The Six (6) Season or The Six (6) Event Calendar of 360 days = 6 Cycles or Seasons x 60 days)
    9,360,000 Days/180 Cycle = (52,000 Cycles/2=26,000 Ancient Years)

    The Mayan Mucmuchumil (52 Days), aligned to 9,360,000/52=180,000 Cycles

    The Mayan Tzolkin aka Tzolk"in aka Cholq'ij = 260 days

    The Mayan Momtun =180 days x 2 Cycles = 360 days


    9,360,360 Days/180 Cycle = 52,002 cycles/2=26,001 Ancient Years

    The Mayan TUN = 360 days
    9,360,000 Days/360 Cycle = 26,000 Ancient Years
    9,360,360 Days/360 Cycle = 26,001 Ancient Years

    The Mayan IK TUN MOON
    - The Difference between The New Moon & The Full Moon Cycle in Days

    The Mayan Mucmuchumil (52 Days)
    aligned to 9,360,000/52 day cycles=180,000 cycles

    The Mayan Kit Jeb (400 Days)
    aligned to 9,360,000/400 day cycles=23,400 cycles

    The 360 Day Ancient Calendars of The Maori of New Zealand,
    and, The 360 Day Ancient Calendars of The Aboriginal of Australia.

    The Grand Cycle of Macha is 9,360,000 days
    (5 major cycles x 13 minor cycles) =
    65 cycles x 144,000 days=9,360,000 days
    + The Grand Cycle of Pacha is 360 days
    (6 seasons x 60 days = 360)=9,360,360 days
    9,360,360/360 Days=26,001 Ancient Years
    9,360,000/360 Days=26,000 Ancient Years
    360/360 Days=One (1) Ancient Year

    360 = 1 degree precessional advancement per day
    x 360 Days= 1 (One) Ancient Year
    which is, now modified to:
    The Gregorian Calendar which consists of:
    (3 years X 365 days
    )+ (1 leap year X 365) + (1 day)= 1461 days or 4 Gregorian Years

    There are also yearly cycles:

    The Mayan Chol Tun (260 Years),
    aligned to 9,360,000/360=26000/260=100 Cycles

    The Mayan Kutan (520 Years),
    aligned to 9,360,000/360=26000/260=52 Cycles

    The Mayan Ajau Tun (20 Years),
    aligned to 9,360,000/360=26000/20=1300 Cycles

    The Mayan Ekomal Jun (520 Years),
    aligned to 9,360,000/360=26000/520=50 Cycles.

    The Mayan Ox Lajuj Baktun (5200 Years),
    aligned to 9,360,000/360=26000/5200=5 Cycles.

    The Mayan Tikitun
    22 Cycles of 52 Years = (9 x 52 = 468) Darkness-Hell
    + (13 x 52 = 676) Light-Heaven

    The Mayan Bolon Tiki
    9 x 52 =
    468 Years of Darkness-Hell

    The Mayan Oxala Juj Tiki
    13 x 52 =
    676 Years of Light-Heaven
    (468 YEARS+676 YEARS=1144 YEARS=
    ( 9 Darkness/Hell x 13 Light/Heaven) =
    22 cycles x 52 YEARS)
    also Fits into The Greater Cycle of:
    26,000 Ancient Years/500 cycles = 52 Years
    500 cycles x 52 Ancient years = 26,000

    The HAAB (360 + 5 DAYS)
    The Five "Dead" or "Unlucky" Days can occur two times per year,
    - the middle of the year
    & 27 Dec, 28 Dec, 29 Dec, 30 Dec & 31 December


    AND, also the proof that the pyramids are also calendars

    http://www.thuban.spruz.com/forums/?page=post&fid=&lastp=1&id=0265D780-C9C1-46C1-80A1-A15795198653


    ~ Susan Lynne Schwenger
     
    Last edited: Oct 17, 2014
  6. Susan Lynne Schwenger

    Susan Lynne Schwenger The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    Messages:
    6,134
    Calakmul (also Kalakmul and other less frequent variants) is a Maya archaeological site
    in the Mexican state of Campeche, deep in the jungles of the greater Petén Basin region.


    It is 35 kilometres (22 mi) from the Guatemalan border.

    Calakmul was one of the largest and most powerful ancient cities ever uncovered in the Maya lowlands.

    Calakmul is a modern name, in ancient times the city core was known as Ox Te' Tuun.

    Calakmul was a major Maya power within the northern Peten region of the Yucatan of southern Mexico.

    Calakmul administered a large domain marked by the extensive distribution of their emblem glyph
    of the snake head sign, to be read "Kaan".


    Calakmul was the seat of what has been dubbed the Kingdom of the Snake[1]
    or Snake Kingdom.


    This Snake Kingdom reigned during most of the Classic period.

    Calakmul itself is estimated to have had a population of 50,000 people
    and had governance, at times, over places as far away as 150 kilometers.


    There are 6,750 ancient structures identified at Calakmul the largest of which
    is the great pyramid at the site.


    Structure 2 is over 45 metres (148 ft) high, making it one of the tallest of the Maya pyramids.

    Four tombs have been located within the pyramid.

    Like many temples or pyramids within Mesoamerica the pyramid at Calakmul
    increased in size by building upon the existing temple to reach its current size.


    The size of the central monumental architecture is approximately 2 square kilometres
    (0.77 sq mi) and the whole of the site, mostly covered with dense residential structures,
    is about 20 square kilometres (7.7 sq mi).


    Throughout the Classic Period, Calakmul maintained an intense rivalry with the major city
    of Tikal to the south, and the political manoeuvrings of these two cities have been likened
    to a struggle between two Maya superpowers.


    Rediscovered from the air by biologist Cyrus L. Lundell of the Mexican Exploitation Chicle Company
    on December 29, 1931, the find was reported to Sylvanus G. Morley of the Carnegie Institute
    at Chichen Itza in March 1932.


    According to Lundell, who named the site, "In Maya, 'ca' means 'two',
    'lak' means 'adjacent', and 'mul' signifies any artificial mound or pyramid,
    so 'Calakmul' is the 'City of the Two Adjacent Pyramids'."
     
  7. Susan Lynne Schwenger

    Susan Lynne Schwenger The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    Messages:
    6,134
    300px-ES-Mesoam%C3%A9rica.
     
  8. Susan Lynne Schwenger

    Susan Lynne Schwenger The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    Messages:
    6,134
    Calakmul is located in Campeche state in southeastern Mexico, about 35 kilometres (22 mi) north of the border with Guatemala
    and 38 kilometres (24 mi) north of the ruins of El Mirador.[2] The ruins of El Tintal are 68 kilometres (42 mi) to the southwest of Calakmul
    and were linked to both El Mirador and Calakmul itself by causeway.[3]
    Calakmul was about 20 kilometres (12 mi) south of the contemporary city of Oxpemul and approximately 25 kilometres (16 mi) southwest of La Muñeca.[4]
    The city is located on a rise about 35 metres (115 ft) above a large seasonal swamp lying to the west,[5]
    known as the El Laberinto bajo (a Spanish word used in the region to denote a low-lying area of seasonal marshland).[6]
    This swamp measures approximately 34 by 8 kilometres (21 by 5.0 mi) and was an important source of water during the rain season.[6]
    The bajo was linked to a sophisticated water-control system including both natural and artificial features such as gullies and canals that encircled a 22-square-kilometre (8.5 sq mi) area around the site core, an area considered as Inner Calakmul.[6]
    The location of Calakmul at the edge of a bajo provided two additional advantages:
    the fertile soils along the edge of the swamp and access to abundant flint nodules.[3]
    The city is situated on a promontory formed by a natural 35-metre (115 ft) high limestone dome rising above the surrounding lowlands.[3]
    This dome was artificially levelled by the Maya.[7]
    During the Preclassic and Classic periods settlement was concentrated along the edge of the El Laberinto bajo, during the Classic period structures were also built on high ground and small islands in the swamp where flint was worked.[3]
    At the beginning of the 21st century the area around Calakmul remained covered by dense forest.[8] During the 1st millennium AD the area received moderate and regular rainfall, although there is less surface water available than further south in Guatemala.[8] Calakumul is now located within the 1,800,000-acre (7,300 km2) Calakmul Biosphere Reserve.
    [edit]Population and extent

    At its height in the Late Classic period the city is estimated to have had a population of 50,000 inhabitants
    and to have covered an area of over 70 square kilometres (27 sq mi).

    The city was the capital of a large regional state with an area of about 13,000 square kilometres (5,000 sq mi).[9]


    During the Terminal Classic the city's population declined dramatically and the rural population plummeted
    to 10% of its former level.[10]

    The Late Classic population density of Calakmul has been calculated at 1000/km² (2564 per square mile)
    in the site core and 420/km² (1076 per square mile) in the periphery (an area of 122 square kilometres
    (47 sq mi).[11]

    Calakmul was a true urban city and not just an elite centre surrounded by commoner residences.[11]

    The site core of Calakmul was known in ancient times as Ox Te' Tuun ("Place of Three Stones")
    which may have been because of the triadic pyramid Structure 2.[7]

    Calacmul.
    [​IMG]

    The Emblem Glyph of Calakmul

    The Calakmul kingdom included 20 secondary centres, among which were large cities such as La Muñeca, Naachtun, Sasilha, Oxpemul and Uxul.[11]

    The total population of these secondary centres has been estimated at 200,000.[11]

    The kingdom also included a large number of tertiary and quaternary sites, mostly fairly small
    and consisting of a number of groups arranged around courtyards, although there are also larger rural sites
    situated on ridges along the edges of the bajos that include temples, palaces and stelae.[11]

    The total rural population of the kingdom is calculated at 1.5 million people.[11]

    The entire population of the Calakmul kingdom, including the city itself and the rural population
    in the 13,000 square kilometres (5,000 sq mi) area of the regional state,
    is calculated at 1.75 million people in the Late Classic period.[9]

    The Emblem Glyph of Calakmul has a greater distribution than the Emblem Glyph of any other Maya city.
    The Glyph is also found in more hieroglyphic texts than any other Emblem Glyph, including that of Tikal.[12]

    Calakmul administered a large domain marked by the extensive distribution of their emblem glyph
    of the snake head sign,[13] to be read "Kaan".[14]

    Calakmul was the seat of what has been dubbed the Snake Kingdom.[15]

    At times the city had governance over places as far away as 150 kilometers.[5]



    [​IMG]
    Glyph of Calakmul

    of Calakmul were known as k'uhul kan ajawob ("Divine Lords of the Snake Kingdom").[12]

    This list is not continuous, as the archaeological record is incomplete. All dates AD.

    Name (or nickname)[17]RuledAlternative Names
    Yuknoom Ch'een I ?
    Tuun K'ab' Hix-520-546+Cu Ix, Ku Ix
    Sky Witness-561-572+
    Yax Yopaat572-579First Axewielder
    Scroll Serpent579-611+
    Yuknoom Ti' Chan–619+Chan
    Tajoom Uk'ab K'ahk'622-630Ta Batz'
    Yuknoom Head630-636Cauac Head
    Yuknoom Ch'een II636–686Yuknom Ch'en, Yuknoom the Great
    Yuknoom Yich'aak K'ahk'686–c. 695Jaguar Paw Smoke, Jaguar Paw
    Split Earthc. 695+
    Yuknoom Took' K'awiil-702–731+Ruler 5, Ruler 6, Ruler 7
    Wamaw K'awiilc. 736
    Ruler Yc. 741Ruler 8, B'olon K'awiil I
    Great Serpentc. 751Ruler 8, Ruler Z
    B'olon K'awiil-771-c. 789+Ruler 9, B'olon K'awiil II
    Chan Petc. 849
    Aj Took'c. 909

    [​IMG]
    Stela 51, dated to AD 731, depicts Yuknoom Took' K'awiil.[16]

    History

    Calakmul has a long occupational history and excavations have revealed evidence from the Middle Preclassic right through to the Postclassic.[6] The causeway network that linked Calakmul with the cities of El Mirador, Nakbe and El Tintal suggest strong political links between the four cities that may have begun in the Preclassic, when both Calakmul and El Mirador were important cities, and continued into the Classic period when Calakmul itself was the most powerful city in the region.[3] Calakmul was one of the largest and most powerful ancient cities ever uncovered in the Maya lowlands.[18]
    [edit]Calakmul vs. Tikal

    [​IMG]
    [​IMG]

    The history of Classic Maya civilization was dominated by the rivalry between the opposed alliance networks
    of Calakmul and Tikal (pictured)

    The history of the Maya Classic period is dominated by the rivalry between Tikal and Calakmul,
    likened to a struggle between two Maya "superpowers".[19]

    Earlier times tended to be dominated by a single larger city and by the Early Classic Tikal was moving
    into this position after the dominance of El Mirador in the Late Preclassic and Nakbe in the Middle Preclassic.[20]

    However Calakmul was a rival city with equivalent resources that challenged the supremacy of Tikal
    and engaged in a strategy of surrounding it with its own network of allies.[21]

    From the second half of the 6th century AD through to the late 7th century Calakmul gained the upper hand
    although it failed to extinguish Tikal's power completely and Tikal was able to turn the tables on its great rival
    in a decisive battle that took place in AD 695.[22]

    Half a century later Tikal was able to gain major victories over Calakmul's most important allies.[22]

    Eventually both cities succumbed to the spreading Classic Maya collapse.[23]

    The great rivalry between these two cities may have been based on more than competition for resources.
    Their dynastic histories reveal different origins and the intense competition between the two powers
    may have had an ideological grounding.

    Calakmul's dynasty seems ultimately derived from the great Preclassic city of El Mirador
    while the dynasty of Tikal was profoundly affected by the intervention of the distant central Mexican metropolis of Teotihuacan.[23]

    With few exceptions, Tikal's monuments and those of its allies place great emphasis upon single male rulers
    while the monuments of Calakmul and its allies gave greater prominence to the female line
    and often the joint rule of king and queen.[21]
    Preclassic

    Calakmul was already a large city in the Preclassic period.[24]

    The early history of Calakmul is obscure, although a dynastic list has been pieced together that extends back
    into an ancestral past. This dynasty has been reconstructed in part from Late Classic ceramics
    from the region of great Preclassic cities of El Mirador and Nakbe.[25]

    This may mean that Calakmul ultimately inherited its political authority from one of these cities,
    with its dynasty originating in the Late Preclassic in the Mirador Basin and relocating itself to Calakmul
    in the Classic period after the collapse of these cities.[25]

    REFERENCE NOTES
    1 - 25
    1. ^ 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus by Charles C. Mann 2005
    2. ^ Sharer & Traxler 2006, p.356. Folan et al 1995a, p.310.
    3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Folan et al 1995a, p.313.
    4. ^ Folan et al 1995a, p.311.
    5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Sharer and Traxler 2006, p.356.
    6. ^ a b c d Folan et al 1995a, p.310.
    7. ^ a b Braswell et al 2005, p.167.
    8. ^ a b c d e f g h Braswell et al 2005, p.165.
    9. ^ a b Braswell et al 2005, p.171.
    10. ^ Braswell et al 2005, pp.164, 188.
    11. ^ a b c d e f Braswell et al 2005, p.170.
    12. ^ a b Braswell et al 2005, p.162.
    13. ^ Schele and Freidel 1990, pp.456–457 n.21.
    14. ^ Nikolai Grube, "Hieroglyphs" in Divine Kings of the Rain Forest (Könemann, 2000), 115f; 120
    15. ^ Martin & Grube 2000, pp.101, 104.
    16. ^ Martin & Grube 2000 p.113.
    17. ^ Martin & Grube 2000 pp.102-115. Sharer & Traxler 2006, pp.360-361.
    18. ^ Martin & Grube 2000, p.101. Braswell et al 2005, p.162.
    19. ^ Webster 2002, pp.168-169.
    20. ^ Sharer & Traxler 2006, p.495.
    21. ^ a b Sharer & Traxler 2006, pp.495-496.
    22. ^ a b Sharer & Traxler 2006, p.496.
    23. ^ a b Sharer & Traxler 2006, p.497.
    24. ^ a b c d e f g Martin & Grube 2000, p.103.
    25. ^ a b Martin & Grube 2000, p.102. Sharer & Traxler 2006, p.357.

    [​IMG]
     
  9. Susan Lynne Schwenger

    Susan Lynne Schwenger The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    Messages:
    6,134
    Jorgelito - Posted Aug 20th 2012

    Have you heard of an ancient Mayan trade route between the proximity of Cancun
    (by river) to near Uxmal (by land) on the Gulf of Mexico.

    It obviated the necessity of going around the Yucatan Peninsula.

    It would be a wondeful adventure to travel what may have been this trade route short cut !!

    What charms me about such an endeavor more than actually finding evidence along the way

    of such a trade route (which I have not been able to verify) -- maybe relics, maybe resting huts 20 miles apart

    not completely engulfed by the jungle, maybe Mayan folklore of indigenous people describing travelers

    of the route

    To be honest though, what appeals to me is an excuse to play the role. Something akin to Indiana Jones!

    To my knowledge no one has actually tried to recreate this route.
     
  10. Susan Lynne Schwenger

    Susan Lynne Schwenger The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    Messages:
    6,134
    Calakmul - Step Pyramid
    50947578_4a705db1c0_z. flickr/madmonk

    Calakmul is a Mayan site hidden inside the jungles of the Mexican state of Campeche.
    It is one of the largest Mayan cities ever uncovered with over 6,500 ancient structures identified.
    Calakmul’s 55 meter high pyramid is by far the largest structure at the site.
    Like many other temples in Mesoamerica the Mayans increased the size of the pyramid at Calakmul
    by building upon an older existing temple to reach its current size.

    http://www.touropia.com/step-pyramids-of-the-world/
     

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