Tell Time by The Big Dipper - PRECESSION of POLE STARS -- THE TiMELiNE -- Susan Lynne Schwenger

Discussion in 'Ancient, Indigenous, & Tribal Calendars' started by CULCULCAN, May 5, 2015.


    CULCULCAN The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    Susan Lynne Schwenger
    The eXchanger ~ WHiTE LOTUS STAR
    (The Forum of Dame & Lady eXKavier ~ Susan Lynne Schwenger
    aka TALKS with THUNDER with THUNDERs

    aka Wassenakoshka Anang ~ Wassenakoshka Giisis Kwe
    (She is bright like the stars, She is bright like the sun)

    The eXchanger aka White Lotus Star aka 13
    #iN12d #TheFinalFire #The13thBridge #TheOriginalSpark

    THE FiNAL SYNTHESiS - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8
    (coming soon)


    it is NOT a swastika sign, it is really THE BiG DiPPER

    The Magical Secret to what you really are !!!
    Join us on The Journey to The 13th Bridge


    The Polar Constellations

    The autumn sky is dominated by the Great Square of Pegasus,
    four stars that form a huge square in the sky,
    which you can see if you look almost straight up.

    See it?

    The stars are a bit faint, but it's distinctive
    because it's in a faint portion of the sky.

    The earth has swung around the sun to the southern face
    of our galaxy so we are now looking out
    of the disk of the galaxy towards its south pole.

    As a result, the region of the Great Square
    has few nearby bright stars.

    If you follow a straight line through the two stars
    on the right side of the square up
    over the top of the sky and back down,
    it takes you to the North Star.

    1. We start our tour by turning our attention to the North. Anybody recognize anything?

      If you're looking for the Big Dipper, it's there, scraping along the northern horizon.

      You may only be able to see parts of it over the tops of the trees. {Trace out the Big Dipper}.

    2. It's really not a constellation, it's what's called an 'asterism', a highly recognizable part of a constellation.

      The full constellation is Ursa Major, and is hopelessly lost
      beneath the horizon
      at this time of the year.

    3. The Big Dipper is a polar 'constellation'

      -- one that is very close to the North Pole.

      If stars are close enough to the pole they never set
      below the horizon and we can see them all year long.

      Can anyone spot the Pole Star?

      How do you find it?

      That's right, the two stars at the front edge of the cup
      are pointer stars and point to the North Star,
      whose actual name is Polaris.

      Go up from the cup to find Polaris.

    4. Since the earth's north pole points to Polaris and the earth rotates around its poles, all the constellations seem to rotate around Polaris, including the Big Dipper. You can tell time using the Big Dipper -- it serves as a 24-hour clock.

      Click on the little clock here tt32. for more information.
    5. Polaris is a part of the constellation Ursa Minor,
      more commonly known as the Little Dipper.

      Polaris is at the tip of the handle. {Trace out the Little Dipper.}

    6. Threading his way between the Big Dipper and the Little Dipper is Draco the Dragon.

      {Trace out Draco.}

      Draco starts off with two bright yellow eyes
      (actually one's yellow, one's orange),
      and then winds around the little dipper
      with its tail between the two dippers.

      This is a very cool-looking constellation,
      a rare one that looks like the monster it is supposed to be,
      glaring yellow eyes and all.

      The head of Draco forms a distinct asterism, known as "The Lozenge".

      Who's got the binoculars?

      Use them to find Draco's eyes, then go down to find the next star
      in the Lozenge closest to the eyes -- n (nu) Draconis.

      Notice anything?

      That's right, it's a double star, and a very neat one in binoculars, tight together and exactly equal in brightness.

    7. The two most important Polar Constellations
      to recognize are the Big Dipper and the Big W,
      and the Big Dipper is so low this time of year
      that it is now even more important to recognize
      the Big W.

      The Big W is Cassiopeia
      - roughly on the opposite side of Polaris from the Big Dipper
      {Trace out Cassiopeia}.

      Well, it's upside down now so it looks more like a big "M".

      Cassiopeia is a Queen in her chair,
      and even though this isn't the "official" way to look at her,
      I envision Cassiopeia's head at the left side of the "W",
      making the figure like a lounge chair with a foot rest.

      This is how I learned it as a kid, and it's very useful
      because you can easily find the North Star
      by going "Up from the Seat" of Cassiopeia's chair,
      in similar manner to going

      "Up from the Cup" of the Big Dipper.

      Since the Big W is on the opposite side of the North Star,
      this gives you a way to find Polaris any time of the year,
      even now when the Dipper likes to hide below the tree line.

    8. Cassiopeia got herself into a lot of trouble,
      leading to the story of Andromeda and Perseus
      and involving no less than six constellations in the sky,
      the most involved in any of the constellation legends.
      You'll hear more about that story in a moment.

    9. The constellation Cassiopeia lies right smack
      in the middle of the Milky Way,
      and is filled with galactic clusters,
      also called open clusters.
      These are small groups of stars, maybe a hundred or so,
      that formed from the same (huge) cloud of gas and dust.

      They are very often young stars

      - blue ones which are large and very hot and don't last long.

      There are several decent examples in Cassiopeia,
      like Messier object #52, or "M52",
      one of many "M" objects named after a catalog published
      in the late 1700's by the Frenchman Charles Messier.

      Messier was a comet hunter of great renown
      who published a catalog of fuzzy things
      that might be confused with comets.

      These ended up being some of the most interesting objects in the sky.

      When you find M52 you are looking
      at a "young"cluster of about 200 stars

      -- young means that it is only about 100 million years old.

      The cluster is 10 light years in diameter
      and 3000 light years away from us,
      which is why you need the binoculars to see it.

      Another interesting galactic cluster is NGC 663
      (NGC stands for New General Catalog

      -- published in 1888 it's not really that new).

      This cluster lies about half way between the two stars
      on the flattened side of the "W", e and d Cassiopeiae.

      As you sweep the binoculars between the two stars,
      you will notice that NGC 663 is merely the largest
      and brightest of several clusters in this region.

      That may be because it is the closest, at about 3000 light years.

      The others in that area are 6000 - 8000 light years away.

      How many clusters can you spot between these two stars?

      You might be able to see as many as five,
      with NGC 663 at the center
      and the other four marking the corners of a diamond around it.

      M52 - Note the little box of stars around the clusterNGC 663 - halfway down the left side of the "W"
      M52. NGC663.
    10. While you're scoping around for clusters with the binoculars,
      you notice anything unusual about the brightest stars of Cassiopeia?

      They're not all just points of white light, are they?

      Some are bright yellow, some are orange, almost red, and some are blue!

      There, the one at the center peak of the W (g Cassiopeiae),
      that one's blue, then if you go to the bright one down
      and to the right ( a Cassiopeiae), that one's orange,
      and the brightest star you see between those two (h Cassiopeiae),
      that one's yellow. So what do the star colors mean?

      Why would one star be blue and another red?

      Yup, that's right.

      Different colors show different temperatures.

      So which star color is the hottest?

      Just like a flame, blue is the hottest part, yellow is next,
      red is the coolest.

      The sun is a yellow star, about 10,000°F at the surface.

      A red star is about half the sun's surface temperature,
      whereas a blue star is three to five times as hot as the sun.

      White stars are somewhere between the yellow ones and blue ones.

      Now, all stars are made of pretty much the same stuff
      -- about 90% hydrogen and the rest is helium
      with some traces of other stuff.

      So, why would one star be burning hotter than another?

      The answer is in the size of the star.

      The more massive it is, the more pressure there is at the center
      and therefore the hotter

      - and for that matter the brighter

      - the star burns.

      So blue stars are the biggest and brightest of stars,
      and red stars are the smallest and dimmest.

      So why is red a Cassiopeiae so bright?

      Hmmm... yeah... well, like with most rules,
      there are exceptions to the rule, and this rule is no exception.

      a Cassiopeiae is a star that is literally running out of gas.

      As a star burns up all the hydrogen at its center,
      it starts to burn helium
      (which is the "ash" from the hydrogen burning),
      which makes it expand, get brighter, and turn red|
      -- it becomes a red giant.

      This is the time you can get a bright red star,
      when the star is near the end of its life.

      When our sun starts burning out it will expand
      so big it will swallow up Mercury and Venus
      and scorch the surface of the earth to a cinder.

      If you are hoping to see all that happen you
      will have to wait about 5 billion years.

      So there are two reasons a star could be red
      -- it is massive (and once was yellow, white or even blue)
      and is now burning out (a red giant),
      or it never had enough mass to burn any hotter than red (a red dwarf).
      Notice that when we graph out the stars
      showing their temperature (or color)
      against their brightness, most of them fall along a line

      -- this line is called the Main Sequence,
      and the graph is called the "H-R" (for Hertzsprung-Russell) Diagram.

      Others are not on the main sequence,
      mostly stars that are either just being born
      (called "T-Tauri" stars) or stars that are near the end of life.

      So the Big Dipper points out the North Star,
      and the three stars of the handle are pointers as well,
      but the stars they point to,
      while important, are below the horizon right now.

      Wait a minute is that really three stars in the Dipper's handle
      or is it four?

      Looky there the middle star seems to have a companion
      -- the bright star is Mizar and the companion is Alcor.

      Who can see the companion?
      That was used by ancient Greek and Arab armies as an eye test.

      Some see them as a horse & rider.

      The Europeans saw the handle of the dipper as the tail of the Great Bear.

      Since bears don't have tails they danced around it
      by explaining that when the gods lifted the bear to the sky
      the tail got stretched out.

      Pretty lame.

      The Indians, who knew darn right well that bears don't have tails,
      saw the three stars of the handle as hunters chasing the great bear
      (interesting that they also saw a bear).

      When the constellation Ursa Major sets in the fall,
      the Indians explained that the hunters catch up with him
      and shoot him with their arrows,
      which is why the leaves on the trees turn red.

      Anyway the three stars are hunters and one of them brought his dog,
      so Mizar is a hunter and Alcor is his dog.

      Or another story is that there are three hunters pursuing the bear
      and one brought a pot to cook the bear in (optimistic).

      So Mizar is a hunter and Alcor is his pot.

      Yet another story involves the Pleiades.

      This is a star cluster in the constellation Taurus
      (a winter constellation -- we may see them a little later tonight).

      It is called "the Seven Sisters" and those with very sharp eyes
      can see seven stars but most people can only see six.

      So the story is that Mizar is riding off with the Seventh Sister.
    Tell Time by the Big Dipper



    CULCULCAN The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member



    Impress your friends. Be the life of any party. You, too, can use the stars to tell time!


    One of the easiest star groupings to use for this is the Big Dipper. After dark during mid-March, look for the Dipper shining midway up in the northeastern sky.

    The Big Dipper, of course, is a familiar group of seven stars that forms the shape of a bowl with a curved handle. The two stars at the end of its bowl are known as the pointer stars since they aim toward Polaris―the North Star.

    As the Earth turns during the night, the Dipper's pointer stars constantly change their orientation relative to the North Star. In fact, we can imagine the stars at the end of the Dipper's bowl as the hour hand of a huge 24-hour clock―handy for telling time by the stars.

    But it's not as simple as just looking at the Dipper to tell time; you'll need to do some arithmetic before you can amaze your friends. Here's all you need to do:

    1. Estimate the position of the "pointer" stars of the Dipper to an accuracy of about one-quarter hour. For example, in the illustration they point to about 1 o'clock.

    2. Count the number of months past January 1 to the nearest one-quarter month. If you try this in mid-March, for example, that number would be 2.5.

    3. Add the values of Step 1 and Step 2. For our example, the answer would be 3.5. Then double this result; in this case it would be 7.0.

    4. Subtract the answer of Step 3 from 16.25. For our example, the answer would be 9.25. (If the Step 3 value is larger than 16.25, subtract it from 40.25 instead). If the result is less than 12, the time is p.m. If greater than 12, it's a.m. In our example, the time is nearly quarter past 9 in the evening. This number is in Standard Time; don't forget to add one hour for Daylight Savings Time when that comes about.

    Remember this is just a very rough estimate and, with practice, you'll be able to do this quickly in your head.

    But if all your efforts to tell time by the stars fail, quizzically touch your forehead while stealing a glance at your wristwatch. In the dark, no one will ever know!
    Last edited: May 5, 2015

    CULCULCAN The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    17200870_10158455489290085_1331133672764922793_n. dipper-clock.
    'do NOT be The Judge of my story
    by the chapter you walked in on'
    ~ susan lynne schwenger

    CULCULCAN The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    Using The Stars To Tell Time

    Polaris (The North Star) is located in the constellation of Ursa Minor and can be used to either measure time,
    or tell the time within 30 minutes of accuracy.

    Locating Polaris
    Polaris lies just opposite The Plough (Big Dipper) in the constellation of Ursa Major with a line drawn from the pointer stars
    (Dubhe and Merak) in the Big Dipper and five times their distance from each other then leading to Polaris.

    It is located 434 light-years from Earth and is a yellow supergiant 2,500 times brighter than our Sun.

    Measuring Time
    Ursa Major along with neighboring Cassiopeia never set below the horizon and completes a whole counter-clockwise
    (east to west) rotation around Polaris every 24 hours. Therefore, pointer star Merak for example,
    would revolve all the way around Polaris and return to its original place within a 24 hour period.

    Now imagine Polaris as the center of a celestial 24 hour clock (24 separate hours)
    and a line drawn from Polaris to Merak as an hour hand with each 15 degree rotation by Merak
    equaling 1 hour of time passing (360 degrees/24hrs).

    To tell when say four hours have elapsed draw a new hour line running 60 degrees counter-clockwise
    from your original hour hand and note where it would intercept the horizon.

    When the line eventually reaches that point four hours have elapsed.
    Telling The Time


    March 8th the basic rule involving Polaris and The Big Dipper is as follows:
    Midnight (2400): Big Dipper directly over Polaris
    6AM (0600): Big Dipper is to left (west) of Polaris.
    Noon (1200): Big Dipper directly below Polaris
    6PM (1800): Big Dipper is to right (east) of Polaris.
    Complicating matters, however, is the fact that our celestial clock runs fast by 24 hours each year because the Earth takes 365 days to travel around the Sun but a circle only has 360 degrees. In order to compensate for this, we have to thus adjust the 24-hour (midnight) mark counter-clockwise on our celestial clock by around two hours per month to give an accurate reading of the time.
    To be extra accurate subtract 30 minutes for each week or 4 minutes per remaining day to give a reading to within half an hour of accuracy. However, don’t forget to add one hour to the time if DST is in effect.

    ` Star-Clock.
    'do NOT be The Judge of my story
    by the chapter you walked in on'
    ~ susan lynne schwenger

    CULCULCAN The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    'do NOT be The Judge of my story
    by the chapter you walked in on'
    ~ susan lynne schwenger

    CULCULCAN The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    PRECESSION of POLE STARS -- THE TiMELiNE -- Susan Lynne Schwenger
    'do NOT be The Judge of my story
    by the chapter you walked in on'
    ~ susan lynne schwenger

    CULCULCAN The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    Polaris is the North Star

    By Bruce McClure in BRIGHTEST STARS | May 24, 2016
    The entire northern sky wheels around Polaris.

    Some assume it’s the brightest star in the sky.

    In fact, Polaris ranks only 50th in brightness.

    Ken Christison captured these glorious star trails around Polaris, the North Star.
    See more photos from Ken Christison.

    The North Star or Pole Star – aka Polaris – is famous for holding nearly still in our sky
    while the entire northern sky moves around it.

    That’s because it’s located nearly at the north celestial pole, the point around
    which the entire northern sky turns.

    Polaris marks the way due north. As you face Polaris and stretch your arms sideways,
    your right hand points due east, and your left hand points due west.

    About-face of Polaris steers you due south.

    Polaris is not the brightest star in the nighttime sky, as is commonly believed.

    It’s only about 50th brightest.

    But you can find it easily, and, once you do, you’ll see it shining in the northern sky every night,
    from N. Hemisphere locations.

    Follow the links below to learn more about Polaris.
    How to see Polaris
    History of Polaris
    Polaris science
    Polaris on a stormy night. Spotting the North Star – and in that way knowing the direction north
    – has gladdened the heart of many a lost traveler.

    Photo by EarthSky Facebook friend Jv Noriega in the Philippines.
    If you can find the Big Dipper, you can find Polaris. The two outer stars in the bowl of the Dipper
    – Dubhe and Merak – always point to the North Star.
    Polaris marks the end of the Handle of the Little Dipper.
    Chart for early autumn evening Image via EarthSky Tonight

    How to see Polaris. This star is bright enough to spot even from some suburban skies.
    In a dark country sky, even when the full moon obscures a good deal of the starry heavens,
    the North Star is relatively easy to see.

    That fact has made this star a boon to travelers throughout the Northern Hemisphere,
    both over land and sea. Finding Polaris means you know the direction north.

    Best of all, Polaris is readily found by using the prominent group of stars known as the Big Dipper,
    called the Plough in the UK, which may be the Northern Hemisphere’s most famous star pattern.

    To locate Polaris, all you have to do is to find the Big Dipper pointer stars Dubhe and Merak.

    These two stars outline the outer part of the Big Dipper’s bowl.

    Simply draw a line from Merak through Dubhe, and go about 5 times the Merak/Dubhe distance to Polaris.

    The Big Dipper, like a great big hour hand, goes full circle around Polaris in one day.

    More specifically, the Big Dipper circles Polaris in a counter-clockwise direction in 23 hours and 56 minutes.

    Although the Big Dipper travels around Polaris all night long, the Big Dipper pointer stars always point
    to Polaris on any day of the year, and at any time of the night.

    Polaris marks the center of Nature’s grandest celestial clock!

    By the way, Polaris is famous for more reasons than one.
    It’s famous for hardly moving while the other stars wheel around it.
    And it’s famous for marking the end of the Little Dipper‘s handle.

    The Little Dipper is tougher to spot in the night sky than the Big Dipper.

    But if you use the Big Dipper’s pointer stars to locate Polaris, you’ll be one step closer to seeing the Little Dipper.

    As you travel northward, Polaris climbs higher in the sky.

    If you go as far north as the North Pole, you’ll see Polaris directly overhead.

    As you travel south, Polaris drops closer to the northern horizon.

    If you get as far as the equator, Polaris sinks to the horizon.

    South of the equator, Polaris drops out of the sky.

    Does the North Star ever move?

    A planisphere is virtually indispensable for beginning stargazers. Order your EarthSky planisphere today.
    When you take a time exposure photograph of the northern sky (or, in this case, the northeast),
    you see all the stars are moving around Polaris, which is on the left in this image.

    This image by Taro Yamamoto via an article on long exposure star trail photography.

    History of Polaris.
    Polaris hasn’t always been the North Star and won’t remain the North Star forever.

    For example, a famous star called Thuban, in the constellation Draco the Dragon,
    was the North Star when the Egyptians built the pyramids.

    But our present Polaris is a good North Star because it’s the sky’s 50th brightest star.
    So it’s noticeable in the sky.

    It served well as the North Star, for example, when the Europeans first sailed across the Atlantic
    over five centuries ago.

    And Polaris will continue its reign as the North Star for many centuries to come.

    It will align most closely with the north celestial pole – the point in the sky directly
    above Earth’s north rotational axis – on March 24, 2100.

    The computational wizard Jean Meeus figures Polaris will be 27’09” (0.4525o) from the north celestial pole
    at that time (a little less than the angular diameter of the moon when at its farthest from Earth).

    Meanwhile, there is no visible star marking the celestial pole in the Southern Hemisphere.

    What’s more, the Southern Hemisphere won’t see a pole star appreciably close to the south celestial pole
    for another 2,000 years.

    At one time in human history, people literally depended on their lucky stars for their lives and livelihood.

    Luckily, they could trust the Big Dipper and the North Star to guide them.

    People could sail the seas and cross the trackless deserts without getting lost.

    When slavery existed in the United States, slaves counted on the Big Dipper
    (which they called the Drinking Gourd) to show them the North Star,
    lighting their way to the free states and Canada.

    While being honored as the North Star, Polaris enjoys the title of Lodestar and Cynosure as well.

    Star Errai: Future North Star

    Does Mars have a North Star?

    An artist’s illustration of Polaris and its two known companion stars via the Hubble News Center.

    Polaris science. The single point of light that we see as Polaris is actually a triple star system,
    or three stars orbiting a common center of mass.

    The primary star, Polaris A, is a supergiant with about six times the mass of our sun.

    A close companion, Polaris Ab, orbits 2 billion miles from Polaris.

    Much farther away, near the top of the illustration at right, is the third companion Polaris B.

    Polaris B is located approximately 240 billion miles from Polaris A.

    The two companion stars are the same temperature as Polaris A, but are dwarf stars.

    Astronomers estimate Polaris’ distance at 430 light-years.

    Considering the distance, Polaris must be a respectably luminous star.

    According to the star aficianado, Jim Kaler, Polaris is a yellow supergiant star shining
    with the luminosity of 2500 suns.

    Polaris is also the closest and brightest Cepheid variable star
    – a type of star that astronomers use to figure distances to star clusters and galaxies.

    Polaris’ position is RA: 2h 31m 48.7s, dec: +89° 15′ 51″


    Star gazing page:

    Bruce McClure has served as lead writer for EarthSky's popular Tonight pages since 2004.

    He's a sundial aficionado, whose love for the heavens has taken him to Lake Titicaca
    in Bolivia and sailing in the North Atlantic, where he earned his celestial navigation certificate
    through the School of Ocean Sailing and Navigation.

    He also writes and hosts public astronomy programs and planetarium programs
    in and around his home in upstate New York.

    CULCULCAN The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member


    CULCULCAN The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    someone took my picture
    and; turned it into a gif


    CULCULCAN The Final Synthesis - isbn 978-0-9939480-0-8 Staff Member

    this photo has been posted many times on facebook

    …it is really THE BiG DiPPER

    The Magical Secret to what you really are !!!
    Join us on The Journey to The 13th Bridge in12d3 (1). A DiSCOVERY of SUSAN LYNNE SCHWENGER
    13 LiNES of eXpressed spirit iN a 12D world

    in12d1 (2). bridgelogo.

    The FiNAL FiRE (2).

    Join this posting board at
    or @THEFiNALFiRE

    yes, there was an 8th fire, AND, FiNAL FiRE
    THiS iS that 'real' FiRE
    ~susan lynne schwenger
    Last edited: Sep 8, 2019

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